June 11, 2015| 0

Entrepreneurship as a Sign of Common Grace

Dr. Bruce Baker's newest article, "Entrepreneurship as a Sign of Common Grace" has just been published in the Journal of Markets & Morality 18(1): 81-98. Here's a glimpse of what Bruce has to say:

"Viewed from the perspective of common grace, we can see that entrepreneurship bears witness to the beauty, creativity, power, and responsibility bestowed on God’s image bearers to participate in the providence of economic shalom.

Furthermore, common grace provides a context for discussion of the spiritual aspects of entrepreneurship, which can lead to a more profound understanding of business and economics than purely secular discussions can realize..."

Read the article

February 25, 2015| 0

Business, a Jewel in the Crown of the City (Revelation 18:18b)

What city is like unto this great city?! [Rev. 18:18b, KJV]

Human history begins and ends in beauty, moving from beautiful garden to beautiful city. The garden teems with a delightful, exuberant profusion of life, a symbiotic web of life-giving relationships. Trees provide fruit and seed of every kind, and humans are stewards of it all [Genesis 1 & 2]. Similarly, the city is crowned in radiant beauty. She is adorned with jewels, as the bride of the Lamb [Rev. 21:9-11]. The kings of the earth bring their glory and treasure in tribute to the Lord [Rev. 21:24]. This garden and this city are the biblical symbols of the beginning and the consummation of human history.

Meanwhile, as we await the heavenly city [2 Peter 3:10], we live in earthly cities, amalgams of both beauty and distress. Our cities teem with aspiration and disappointment, success and failure, wealth and want; they are leavened by courage, hope, and the dream of justice for all. In other words, we live in the “messy middle”—messy because we can taste and see the coming glory of the heavenly city even as our lives are still marred by the brokenness of sin.

The Bible is especially realistic in its portrayal of business as a place caught in the “messy middle,” and most people easily see that the messy part is very real. The power of Mammon is hard to resist. But the Bible also calls out business as a source of beauty and glory. In Revelation's closing scene, a lament goes up over the loss of the great city’s splendor: merchandise, trade, craftsmanship, and economic productivity [Rev. 18:10-24]. The city’s collapse results from her sin and corruption [Rev. 18:5], which bring condemnation; but her beauty and splendor are seen in the fruits of her business and artistic accomplishments.

This theme is reiterated in the portrayal of the final heavenly city, the new Jerusalem, representing the telos of human history [Rev. 21:10]. Once again we see the city crowned in beauty: the kings of the earth bring their treasures into it. This is not a description of business per se as an activity in the heavenly city, but it does show continuity between the wealth of today and the timeless glory of the new heaven and new earth [Rev. 21:1-2].

Business is caught in the messy middle, it’s true. But we do well to note that righteous business glitters like a jewel in the crown of our earthly cities as well as the one to come.

January 22, 2015| 0

Beautiful Business (Philippians 4:8)

Finally, brothers, whatever is true, whatever is honorable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of praise, think about these things.

Honor, justice, excellence: these come to mind easily when we reflect on what makes business commendable. To be fair, to play by the rules, to do an honest day’s work, and to succeed by dint of hard work and excellence - these traits are indeed praiseworthy, and they are often seen in business people. Admirable as these virtues are, however, they are not by themselves enough to nourish the soul: that takes beauty. If business is to inspire the highest virtues of character and enlarge the soul, we should expect to see beauty in it.  So let’s reflect for a moment on where beauty is to be found in business. In other words, how can business be “lovely,” as Paul describes praiseworthiness?

First of all, business is beautiful by the sheer force of its witness to God’s covenant and creation. Healthy business builds economic shalom, serving God’s purposes by bringing prosperity, meaningful work, and valuable goods and services into being. These are signs of creativity in fulfilling God’s mandate to be fruitful and multiply, and there is beauty in the creation of such tangible blessings. There is beauty in the talent and energy required to create them. These are all gifts which flow from God’s providence.

“Beauty is in the eye of the beholder,” so the old saying goes. In the case of business, beauty is not hard to find if we look for people intent on serving others and contributing to the common good. It is our sense of spiritual calling that inspires the kind of admirable work that enriches the soul. This is as true of serving in the arena of business as it is of serving in the arenas of the arts and crafts. In each case, the beauty is derived from a connection to a greater spiritual reality.

From the beginning, God’s signature was revealed in the diversity and abundance of heaven and earth, and especially in the plenteous life in the Garden. The Psalms glorify the lavish display of life and wonders of the heavens—“O Lord, how manifold are your works! In wisdom have you made them all; the earth is full of your creatures” (Psalm 104:24). This multiform creativity also shows up in the variety of works done by humankind (Psalm 104:23). The never-ending innovation of entrepreneurs bears witness to God’s delight in diversity, abundance, and generosity of spirit. Show me a prosperous community where people enjoy the quality of their life, and I will show you a beautiful web of inter-dependent businesses serving one another.

As Abraham Kuyper said, “multiformity is the undeniable mark of fresh and vigorous life.” [1]  The profusion of businesses in a healthy economy is thus a telltale sign of God’s common grace and points to the beauty of God’s design for human flourishing.


[1] Kuyper, “Uniformity: The Curse of Modern Life”, in Abraham Kuyper: a centennial reader, ed. James D. Bratt, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998), 25.


© by Bruce D. Baker, 2015

January 12, 2015| 0

Caught Up in the Story (John 1:2–3; Ephesians 2:10)

He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made. [John 1:2–3]

For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them. [Ephesians 2:10]

As Christmastide drew to a close last week, we pause to reflect on the meaning that Christmas brings to every season of every year.

Christmas celebrates the introduction of God’s campaign to destroy sin and death. The birth of Jesus, Son of Man and Son of God, changes everything. He is at the center of the greatest story ever told and is the focal point of human history. He was in the beginning. He will be at the end. He occupies the center, and he presides over all creation.

The story of Jesus changes everything. We are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works. Through him we discover our own roles in the story, and through us the good works of God continue. We are caught up in the story - and this this is our place.

Everything we do plays out in the context of this story of God’s conquest of sin and death. The meaning of our work is rooted n the unfolding story of God’s purpose on earth in which every square inch of creation is touched by Jesus and every moment is redeemed at the end of the age. St. Patrick captures this well in his famous prayer:

Christ with me, Christ before me, Christ behind me,
Christ in me, Christ beneath me, Christ above me,
Christ on my right, Christ on my left,
Christ where I lie, Christ where I sit, Christ where I arise…

Here is our job description: “... created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.” Whether in business, at home, in school, or in public office, we are created to do what Jesus does: the will of the Father. The incarnation - God literally taking on flesh - places us in the salvation story, living out the history of God’s saving acts, and connecting our story and our business to the Living Center.

The purpose and beauty of our work, our words, our thoughts, and our deeds is found at the point where they intersect with the life of Jesus, the Savior who was born in a stable and heralded by angels. We want to hear him say of our work, "This is good.” Receiving such a commendation would be a fitting response to the good tidings of Jesus' arrival and the call to become who he made us to be.

December 17, 2014| 0

Solomon’s Wisdom on Career: How to Measure Success (Ecclesiastes 4:4)

Then I saw that all toil and all skill in work come from a man’s envy of his neighbor. This also is vanity and a striving after wind.

The old adage is surely true: no one says at the end of life, “Oh, but how I wish had spent more time building my career!” Even so, we don’t often teach this lesson in business schools. In fact, it may be anathema to business schools that focus on training and equipping people to measure success exclusively in financial terms.

The deeper questions about meaning in one’s career receive scant attention in most business schools: there is a pecuniary disincentive to ask them. That’s why Professor Clayton Christensen of Harvard Business School is the odd exception in saying, “More and more MBA students come to school thinking that career in business means buying, selling, and investing in companies. That’s unfortunate. Doing deals doesn’t yield the deep rewards that come from building up people.” [1]

The problem does not lie in the accomplishments of a successful business career; honest deals, productivity, and profit are good things, after all. The problem lies in their animus: the will and spirit which motivate the striving after them.

Here’s where the wisdom of Ecclesiastes shines as a beacon to expose the futility of “striving after wind,” as the author puts it.

Envy is a stealthy and pernicious motivation. Peer pressure, culture, and the appetites of ego are dangerous taskmasters, yet they rule by default until and unless we pause to evaluate the costs and rewards of our journey. If ever our career is dictated by envy of pecuniary success, we will be chasing the wind - and we shall never catch it.

This is the Solomonic wisdom of Ecclesiastes. The poetic preaching of this book is attributed to Solomon, the wealthiest and wisest king of all time. He had it all. When he discovered it wasn’t enough, he concluded that striving after fame and fortune is a lost cause.

Success is not a bad word. Striving is not a bad word, either. But striving after wind is utterly futile and vain. The true test of career success lies in the purpose and motivations beating in the heart of the striver.

There is a built-in tension in the very notion of career. It forces practical choices upon us which carry real opportunity costs, as illustrated in William Butler Yeats' short poem, "The Choice":

The intellect of man is forced to choose
Perfection of the life, or of the work,
And if it take the second must refuse
A heavenly mansion, raging in the dark.

When all that story’s finished, what’s the news?
In luck or out the toil has left its mark:
That old perplexity an empty purse.
Or the day’s vanity, the night’s remorse.

[1] Clayton Christensen, “How Will You Measure Your Life?” Harvard Business Review, July-August 2010, pp. 46-51, 48.


© Bruce D. Baker, 2014